Constantino Pena, Interventional Radiologist at Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, explains an artery has different layers and there are the blood cells running through the artery and the platelets, but the plaque or atherosclerosis can narrow the artery so you start getting less blood flow down to the leg, for example. "Over time it can get to a critical point where you may not be getting enough blood to the extremity," he says.
Constantino Pena, Interventional Radiologist at Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, explains that with interventional radiology they use a type of imaging to perform minimally invasive procedures, so the goal is to be able to use state of the art imaging to try to minimize the degree of invasiveness and to perform procedures that would be with less risk. Alex Powell, also Interventional Radiologist at the same institution, says they do a lot of advanced work on blood vessels. They treat P.A.D (Peripheral Arterial Disease), which narrows the arteries, so the legs can't get enough blood.
Constantino Pena, Interventional Radiologist at Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, explains they have a number of different techniques they can use to restore the blood supply to an artery. "A lot of times, we may be able to create some kind of conduct, but what we do most commonly is to attempt to use some type of balloon to take an artery that may be occluded or completely closed down and open it up to try to get more blood supply," he points out.
Dr. Constantino Pena, Interventional Radiologist with Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, explains to diagnose a kidney cancer, doctors start with an ultrasound to look at the kidneys, because it is a noninvasive examination performed on the skin and there is no radiation involved. For diagnosing kidney cancer, your physician can order a urine test, blood tests, imaging tests, and a biopsy.
Dr. Yekutiel Sandman, Urologist with Baptist Health South Florida, explains if a tumor is not cancerous, doctors can do a biopsy. He points out it is important to individualize care for the patient. Dr. Constantino Pena, Interventional Radiologist with Miami Cardiac and Vascular Institute, highlights doctors have a more personalized approach to the evaluation of patients with a renal mass. He explains if the renal mass is under two centimeters, the chance of being benign is greater than one that is larger.